Saturday, June 4, 2011

Why We Don't Lose Weight (in TIME)

This article from the August 2, 2009 issue of TIME Magazine, was sent to me by a client.  

It discusses, in part, why we do not lose weight when we exercise.  I do agree with the author, to some extent, that some people do eat more after working out.

However, in my opinion,  the article falls short by failing to explain that we need to cross-train and add intensity to our workouts for best results.

Why Exercise Won't Make You Thin
by John Cloud
Time Magazine 
The findings were surprising. On average, the women in all the groups, even the control group, lost weight, but the women who exercised — sweating it out with a trainer several days a week for six months — did not lose significantly more weight than the control subjects did. (The control-group women may have lost weight because they were filling out those regular health forms, which may have prompted them to consume fewer doughnuts.) Some of the women in each of the four groups actually gained weight, some more than 10 lb. each.
What's going on here? Church calls it compensation, but you and I might know it as the lip-licking anticipation of perfectly salted, golden-brown French fries after a hard trip to the gym. Whether because exercise made them hungry or because they wanted to reward themselves (or both), most of the women who exercised ate more than they did before they started the experiment. Or they compensated in another way, by moving around a lot less than usual after they got home.(Read "Run For Your Lives.")

The findings are important because the government and various medical organizations routinely prescribe more and more exercise for those who want to lose weight. In 2007 the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association issued new guidelines stating that "to lose weight ... 60 to 90 minutes of physical activity may be necessary." That's 60 to 90 minutes on most days of the week, a level that not only is unrealistic for those of us trying to keep or find a job but also could easily produce, on the basis of Church's data, ravenous compensatory eating.

It's true that after six months of working out, most of the exercisers in Church's study were able to trim their waistlines slightly — by about an inch. Even so, they lost no more overall body fat than the control group did. Why not?

Church, who is 41 and has lived in Baton Rouge for nearly three years, has a theory. "I see this anecdotally amongst, like, my wife's friends," he says. "They're like, 'Ah, I'm running an hour a day, and I'm not losing any weight.'" He asks them, "What are you doing after you run?" It turns out one group of friends was stopping at Starbucks for muffins afterward. Says Church: "I don't think most people would appreciate that, wow, you only burned 200 or 300 calories, which you're going to neutralize with just half that muffin."(Read "Too Fat? Read Your E-mail.")

You might think half a muffin over an entire day wouldn't matter much, particularly if you exercise regularly. After all, doesn't exercise turn fat to muscle, and doesn't muscle process excess calories more efficiently than fat does?

Yes, although the muscle-fat relationship is often misunderstood. According to calculations published in the journal Obesity Research by a Columbia University team in 2001, a pound of muscle burns approximately six calories a day in a resting body, compared with the two calories that a pound of fat burns. Which means that after you work out hard enough to convert, say, 10 lb. of fat to muscle — a major achievement — you would be able to eat only an extra 40 calories per day, about the amount in a teaspoon of butter, before beginning to gain weight. Good luck with that.

Fundamentally, humans are not a species that evolved to dispose of many extra calories beyond what we need to live. Rats, among other species, have a far greater capacity to cope with excess calories than we do because they have more of a dark-colored tissue called brown fat. Brown fat helps produce a protein that switches off little cellular units called mitochondria, which are the cells' power plants: they help turn nutrients into energy. When they're switched off, animals don't get an energy boost. Instead, the animals literally get warmer. And as their temperature rises, calories burn effortlessly.(See TIME's health and medicine covers.)
Because rodents have a lot of brown fat, it's very difficult to make them obese, even when you force-feed them in labs. But humans — we're pathetic. We have so little brown fat that researchers didn't even report its existence in adults until earlier this year. That's one reason humans can gain weight with just an extra half-muffin a day: we almost instantly store most of the calories we don't need in our regular ("white") fat cells.

All this helps explain why our herculean exercise over the past 30 years — all the personal trainers, StairMasters and VersaClimbers; all the Pilates classes and yoga retreats and fat camps — hasn't made us thinner. After we exercise, we often crave sugary calories like those in muffins or in "sports" drinks like Gatorade. A standard 20-oz. bottle of Gatorade contains 130 calories. If you're hot and thirsty after a 20-minute run in summer heat, it's easy to guzzle that bottle in 20 seconds, in which case the caloric expenditure and the caloric intake are probably a wash. From a weight-loss perspective, you would have been better off sitting on the sofa knitting.

Read the entire article in TIME Magazine.

Thursday, June 2, 2011

Pedestrians, Beware — and Share the Road, Too

As pedestrians, we need to be aware of traffic patterns.

As we to jog down the street or ride our bikes, we must be aware of changing traffic lights and the flow of both cars and other pedestrians that make up the traffic around us.

The crosswalk painted on the street does not automatically protect pedestrians nor guarantee them safe passage.

If you, as a pedestrian, are crossing the street and the cars perpendicular are moving on a green light, then those oncoming cars have the right-of-way.

If you, as a pedestrian, are walking on the sidewalk and you need to turn into the street, stop walking at the edge of the sidewalk and look at any approaching cars. Stopping at the edge of the sidewalk allows drivers to see you and to understand your intentions.

Pedestrians and drivers share one similar interest: they each want the other to be courteous, to share the road and to yield the right-of-way. However, it is very difficult for drivers to share the road safely with pedestrians when those pedestrians do not pay attention and, as a result, walk directly into traffic.

Finally, pedestrians should never assume the driver has seen her/him nor that the driver will stop.  Walking defensively is the only protection against drivers who don't — or won't — see you.  In a "fight" between a 150-pound walker and a two-ton vehicle, there are no winners.